In the past years, the increasing demand for pork and high price of pork has attracted many farmers to devote themselves to pig farming. But pig farming is not as simple as it sounds, there are many key points that need to be mastered, especially for novice friends who are relatively lacking in technology and experience. It is easy for them to make mistakes, if not corrected in time, it is likely to directly or indirectly affect the interests of the pig farm. So how should a newbie raise pigs? This article will focus on an important preparation work before raising pigs - design and construction of pig house.
The pig house should be scientifically designed according to the biological characteristics of pigs and local conditions to provide a good environment with fresh air and suitable temperature for pigs. Generally, pig sheds are divided into breeding pen, sow pen, farrowing pen, nursing pen, fattening pen, etc.
Boar pen: Boars are mostly kept in a single pen. The area of boar pen is 6-7 square meters, the front is 1.05 meters high, equipped with 1 door, 1 meter high and 0.8 meters wide.
Sow pen: Gestating sows are generally kept in a small pen, which occupies less space and is convenient for observing sows in heat and timely breeding, with a single limit of 0.6m wide, 2.1m long and 1m high.
Farrowing pen: Farrowing pen is a single pen, the width of which is 2~2.2m; among them, the sow restriction frame is 0.6m wide, 2.1~2.2m long and 1.1m wide, the piglet enclosure is 0.6m high, and piglet holding boxes are placed on both sides.
Nursery pen: mostly use high bed nursery, can keep the high bed clean and dry, piglets are not polluted by feces and urine, the area of nursery pen is generally 3m×2m or 1.5m×1.5m.
Fattening pen: the area occupied by fattening pigs depends on the overall layout, generally 0.8~1 square meters per head.
The pig house is usually to double-layered, so that the warmth effect is better when the temperature is lower in winter, and part of the light can be blocked when the sun is strong in summer. It is generally recommended that the sink and the food trough be separated and not mixed together. The size of the trough is best designed according to the amount of feeding. Under normal circumstances, the trough is about 2m long, 10cm deep, and separated by about 30cm. It is more appropriate to use a steel bar to separate it, so as to prevent pigs from entering the food. In the trough, it affects the eating of other pigs. Feeding troughs and water troughs are best built on both sides of the pigsty for easier management. Manure tanks are essential.
The following conditions should be considered when selecting the site for a pig farm.
①Water: A 10,000-head pig farm consumes 150-250 tons of water daily. The water quality should meet the drinking standard, and it is recommended to monitor the water quality once a quarter. When the drinking water is not enough or the water quality is not good, the pigs will show the following performance: tearing each other when drinking, reducing the amount of feeding, slow growth, big weight variation and serious tail biting.
② Land: Try to use land that is not suitable for cultivation and leave room for further development. Try to combine with vegetable fields, fish ponds, orchards, farmland, so that the sewage is harmless and reduced. Not in the tourist areas, nature reserves, ancient architectural reserves, water reserves, livestock and poultry epidemic-prone areas and serious environmental pollution areas to build farms. Keep it in line with local urban development and construction planning and land use planning requirements and relevant regulations. Build the farm in the downwind or sidewind direction of the year-round dominant wind in the residential area of the town to avoid the odor, wastewater and manure piling and affecting the environment of the residential area.
③Transportation: as close as possible to the feed supply and merchandising area, and with convenient transportation. The transportation volume of pig farm is large, and the pig farm is generally required to be more than 200 meters from the main traffic line and more than 100 meters from the general highway.
The unreasonable planning and design of the pig farm will cause a lot of troubles in the future production: ①it cannot have a normal and efficient production. Pigs can only be disinfected with pigs or part of the pens after being transferred out. If all in and all out cannot be achieved, the pig farm will not be able to achieve high benefits. The ditch is connected to the whole building, which reduces the disinfection effect and increases the risk of pathogen transmission. The process of flushing manure with water and soaking manure with water not only causes a lot of waste of water resources, but also brings difficulties to the treatment of manure, causing public hazards to the society and pollution to itself. ②the shed can not meet the requirements of ventilation and cooling. In winter, the temperature at the inlet end is too low, causing the air quality in the house to deteriorate, forming a contradiction between ventilation, heat preservation, and dehumidification. ③The location of the pig farm is not clear. Due to the unscientific and rigorous planning, chaotic introduction, non-standard feed mix, incomplete equipment, unclear division of personnel responsibilities, and even insufficient circulating funds, they cannot operate normally after being put into production, which brings many difficulties to production.
The first thing a novice pig breeder needs to do is to choose a good pig breed. It is recommended to choose pig breeds according to the local breeding environment. Good breed pigs are the first choice. Good breed pigs are generally hybrid pigs. Such pigs are vigorous, do not choose food, grow fast, and have a lot of lean meat.
The biggest input in pig raising is the cost of feed. Only when the cost is properly controlled can the pig farm make money from it. Many novice friends will choose to use branded full-grade materials, which actually increases the cost of pig raising. In fact, pig farmers can make their own raw materials to reduce unnecessary expenses. In addition, online procurement can reduce some costs and appropriately use local resources to reduce unnecessary capital investment.
Don't raise too many pigs when novices start raising pigs. After the pigs are grouped, they must be trained in time to develop good habits of defecation, sleeping, eating and drinking in a fixed place, so as to maintain hygiene in the pen and reduce labor intensity.
The correct feeding method is to feed the concentrate in a timely manner after mixing with a material-to-water ratio of 1:1. Feed the green feed separately. There should be an automatic drinking fountain or a sink in the circle. Clean drinking water should be kept in the sink at all times. If it is pellet feed, do not add water to feed, because it will destroy the nutrients in it, and the palatability will be much reduced. If you feed pellets dry feed, you can feed the pigs with some water after they are full.
If pigs get infectious diseases, they will die in a large area, which will affect the economic interests of farmers.When raising pigs, it is necessary to prevent the disease. Don’t wait until the pigs are sick. This will be costly and the effect will not be good. Usually the pigsty must be cleaned regularly and the troughs and sinks must be regularly disinfected. Only when the living environment is improved can the pigs produce high yields.