Japan is an island country on the west coast of the Pacific Ocean. The total area is 378,000 square kilometers and the total population is about 126 million. Japan is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is a typical country with more people and less land.
The current land system in Japan is private ownership. The so-called private ownership of land is a system that legally recognizes that individuals or private individuals can own land, but it does not mean that all land is privately owned. Japan's current land ownership system is mainly divided into three forms, namely, state ownership, public ownership, and individual and legal person ownership.
Most of Japan’s state-owned and public land is mountain forests, rivers, and seashores, which account for a small percentage of total land resources. Therefore, the system of state-owned construction land use rights is not very developed, and state-owned land and public land are mainly for the state and citizens, and more emphasis is placed on ecological protection. The use of land by non-land owners in Japan is mainly reflected in the land rights and permanent tenure rights in its civil law.
Plantation industry: Soybeans are almost entirely imported. Japan's main fruits are citrus, apples and pears, and the types and quantities of imports are increasing due to changes in the consumption structure. Vegetables are the bulk of Japanese imports, with the main varieties being onions, edible mushrooms, garlic, asparagus, peas with clips, and mouflon beans. With rising income levels, Japan's demand for flowers has increased, and flower sales account for the world's largest. Flower imports continue to grow, mainly from the Netherlands, Thailand, New Zealand, Singapore, the United States, and Taiwan Province of China.
Livestock: Japan's livestock production is mainly concentrated in places with more pastureland, such as Hokkaido. At present, Japanese farmers are practicing intensive breeding, either by several families together, or by 1 family with hundreds of livestock, which can save time and reduce costs. Japanese farmers also practice mechanized feeding of livestock and use electronic computers for management.
Fisheries: Japan is the fourth largest fishing country in the world. There is one of the world's three largest fishing grounds in the northern Pacific Ocean off the coast of Japan, which is rich in fish resources. Japan is the world's largest fish-eating country, and fish products play an important part in the Japanese diet. Importing countries and regions in order are the United States, Taiwan Province of China, China, South Korea and Thailand. The main fish species imported are tuna, bonito (Taiwan Province of China mainly), salmon and trout (from North America, Chile, Norway, Russia and other countries). The number of imports of farmed shrimp has increased significantly, mainly from China, India, Vietnam and other Asian countries.
Forestry: The benefits of forestry in Japan's territorial protection and water conservation are extremely significant. Japan's forest cover is among the highest in the world, but the annual import of wood accounts for about 75% of the total demand. Japan has a large difference in temperature between the north and the south and is rich in tree species, of which coniferous forests account for 2/3 and broad-leaved forests account for 1/3. Wood is used extensively in Japanese houses and furniture, and the culture of "wood" plays an important role in Japanese life. However, due to the low income from forestry operations and the aging of the forestry workforce, forestry production in Japan has been slow. Japan's main timber importers are the United States, Russia, Canada, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Sweden, Chile, Finland, Indonesia, and China.
Agricultural processing industry: Japan's "food-related industry" consists of the food industry (including food industry, distribution, and catering) and the agriculture and water industry (including edible forest products). Japan's rural agro-processing industry places special emphasis on integration with regional agriculture and rural development. It plays an important role not only in developing the regional economy and providing employment, but also in providing a stable outlet for rural products. The "One Village, One Product Movement" (now expanded to "One Prefecture, One Product" in some cases) has been formed nationwide by producers who are engaged in processing agricultural products and producing specialty products with local flavors, taking advantage of their comparative advantages. Some of these products are known throughout the country, such as Oita Prefecture's wide variety of pickles and miso, Hokkaido's Tokachi Wine, Akita Prefecture's Tanen Ham, Yamagata Prefecture's Tsukiyama Wine, Nagano Prefecture's Shinshu Miso, and many others, all of which are typical of mountainous and semi-mountainous areas.
①Less arable land and more efficient use of arable land
In 1999, there were 4.87 million hectares of arable land in Japan, and the average arable land per household in prefectures was less than 1.2 hectares, and the average arable land per household in Hokkaido was only 16.2 hectares, a far cry from the large-scale operations in Europe and the United States. Cereals are intensively produced in large quantities. Rice is grown for 2 seasons a year. In 1998, the yield of cereals per hectare was 5,849 kg.
②Mechanization of agriculture and advancement of agricultural technology
After the war, Japan was short of young laborers and agricultural mechanization spread rapidly with rice as the centerpiece. Most of Japan's agricultural production is now mechanized, and agricultural machinery continues to grow in size and high performance.
Through technologies such as heat preservation seedlings, variety improvement, pesticide and fertilizer improvement, Japan's crop yield per acre has increased dramatically, and through plastic greenhouse and greenhouse technologies, Japan's vegetables can be cultivated in all seasons of the year 1. In the future, Japan will further develop biotechnology, such as genetic modification, to develop new varieties.
③Fewer farming households and an aging agricultural population
In 1999, there were 3.24 million farming households in Japan, down by half from 6 million households in 1950. Of the employed agricultural population in 1999, about 50% were over 65 years old, and the agricultural population is aging. Due to the decrease in farm households and agricultural labor force, the number of agricultural corporations has been increasing and farmers have started to establish companies, combinations, farm associations and other groups for large-scale production, and in 1999 there were 6,860 agricultural groups, which are mainly engaged in chicken farming, rice farming, cattle farming and pig farming. In addition, there are 13,120 groups serving the production and distribution of rice.
④Low food self-sufficiency rate and large amount of food imports
Japan's self-sufficiency in food and livestock products is limited to rice and eggs, with a self-sufficiency rate of 95% for rice and 96% for eggs in fiscal 1998. However, due to the low prices of foreign agricultural products, Japan's imports of agricultural products from overseas have increased and domestic production has declined. 49% of fruits, 55% of meat, 66% of fish and shellfish, 84% of vegetables, 9% of wheat, and 3% of soybeans were imported in fiscal 1998. 1997 saw Japan's top import of corn in the world. In addition, soybeans, wheat, sugar and beef are also imported in large quantities. Japan imports 1/10 of the world's agricultural trade.